Published: 2023/07/20

Updated: 2023/07/20

Author: Alex Matt

New Tax Regulation in India: A 28% Turnover Tax on Online Gambling – A Boon or a Bane?

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The Indian government’s Goods and Services Tax (GST) Council has announced a significant change in the taxation policy for the online gaming sector. The 50th GST Council meeting concluded with the decision to levy a flat 28% tax on the turnover of online gambling, casino, and horse race betting. This step, though positioned as a strategy to enhance revenue collection, has sparked considerable debate within the industry.

The Shift from Gross Gaming Revenue to Turnover Tax

The new tax, rather than being applied to the gross gaming revenue (GGR), will be calculated based on the total face value of the bet. This effectively means that operators will need to pay Rs28 in tax for every Rs100 spent by a consumer, regardless of their profit or loss.

For example, in the context of online gambling, the tax will be levied on the full value of all bets placed with operators. In land-based casinos, the tax will be applicable on the face value of the chips purchased, while for horse racing, it will be applied on the total value of the bets placed with bookmakers and totalisators.

This shift from GGR to turnover tax is the result of recommendations from a Group of Ministers (GOM), who, after conducting a comprehensive study on taxation related to gambling, left the final decision to the GST Council.

Industry Reactions to the New Tax Rate

The All India Gaming Federation (AIGF), the apex body for online gambling in India, expressed severe concern over the revised taxation model. The AIGF termed the decision “extremely detrimental” to the entire Indian gaming industry, stating that it could cause significant job losses and encourage players to opt for unlicensed operators.

The AIGF highlighted that with the new taxation, companies might end up paying more in taxes than their total revenue, making survival difficult, especially for startups and MSMEs. Moreover, there are concerns that gamers could turn to gray market operators that have been providing services illegally in India, leading to an unregulated and potentially risky gambling environment.

Recent Changes in India’s Online Gambling Regulations

This tax amendment marks the second significant change in India’s online gambling regulations this year. Earlier in January, the Indian government rolled out a new set of rules to regulate online gambling.

A noteworthy aspect of the new regulations is the proposal for self-regulatory bodies, which would consist of online gaming businesses responsible for creating industry rules. These bodies are expected to focus on protecting players against harm, addressing addiction, preventing financial crime, and safeguarding children.

The Implications of the New Tax Structure

The decision to levy the 28% tax on the full-face value of bets has far-reaching implications for the online gaming industry. This new regulation not only affects the revenue of gaming platforms but also impacts the prize pool available for gamers.

The high tax rate also sparked discontent among industry experts, who had anticipated a more reasonable tax of 18%. According to industry insiders, the 28% tax will impact companies’ cash flows, limiting their ability to invest in innovation, research, and business expansion.

A Disconcerting Outlook for the Gaming Industry

The decision has been described as “unconstitutional, irrational, and egregious” by industry stakeholders. Experts have warned that this move threatens the viability of India’s $20 billion online gaming sector, which has created over two lakh jobs and significantly contributed to the Indian startup ecosystem. The consensus among industry experts is that skill-based games should not be taxed at the same level as casinos or betting apps.

While the new taxation policy might increase revenue collection for the government, it could also stifle the burgeoning online gaming industry in India. The days ahead will be crucial as the industry awaits further developments and adaptations to this sudden policy shift.

Concerns Over the Implementation of the Tax

The implementation of the turnover tax brings with it several concerns. For instance, smaller online gambling operators, startups, and MSMEs could face severe financial strain. High taxation may result in reduced revenues, making it challenging for these smaller entities to survive, let alone thrive. This could potentially lead to a monopolization of the industry, where only larger, well-established companies could afford to stay in business.

The sector’s growth potential could also be severely impacted. With higher taxation, the available funds for reinvestment into research, innovation, and business expansion could significantly shrink. This could slow down the industry’s evolution, impeding the development of new games, technologies, and customer experiences.

Moreover, higher taxation may also lead to increased costs for consumers. Operators might choose to offset the higher taxes by increasing prices for their services, which could deter potential customers and negatively impact the industry’s consumer base.


The Possible Increase in Unregulated Gambling

Another major concern is the potential rise in unregulated gambling. If licensed operators are unable to offer competitive pricing due to high taxes, customers might turn to illegal operators. This could result in a rise in unregulated gambling, posing risks to both the consumers and the economy.

Unlicensed operators do not offer the same level of protection to consumers as regulated businesses do. This could lead to an increase in problem gambling, fraud, and other related issues. Furthermore, revenue from unregulated gambling does not contribute to the country’s tax revenue, leading to potential losses for the government.


Potential Revisions in the Tax Policy

Given the widespread concerns over the new tax policy, it is possible that the government may consider revising it. The gaming industry has been pushing for a tax rate of 18%, which would be more conducive to growth while still contributing to the government’s revenue.

Revising the tax rate could also help address concerns over unregulated gambling. By lowering the tax burden on operators, the government could help make regulated gambling more attractive to consumers, thereby reducing the appeal of unlicensed operators.

It is clear that the government’s intentions are to regulate the online gambling industry more strictly, but it is crucial to find a balance that benefits both the industry and the government. Ensuring that the tax policy supports the industry’s growth and sustainability while also providing substantial revenue for the government will be a challenging but necessary task.


Looking Forward

As it stands, the new taxation policy has raised more questions than it has answered. The industry is awaiting further clarity on the execution and impact of these changes.

If managed correctly, the online gambling industry in India has the potential to create further employment opportunities, drive technological innovation, and significantly contribute to the economy. However, it is essential to ensure that the industry is nurtured and not stifled by overly burdensome regulation.

The next few months will be crucial in determining the path forward for India’s online gambling sector as it navigates through these new tax regulations. The hope is that a balance can be struck where the industry continues to thrive, consumers remain protected, and the government achieves its revenue goals.

The Author

The Author

Alex Matt


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